形容詞的比較級&最高級

為了表現不同程度的性質,形容詞具有三級:原級、比較級、最高級

有些形容詞因為本身已經達到極限,故沒有比較級和最高級

例如absolute, excellent, living, dead, only…..

型式形容詞的原級比較級最高級

規則變化:短字+er / est   more / most 長字

    單音節的字在字尾加erest

tall - taller - tallest

long - longer -longest

clean -cleaner - cleanest

warm - warmer -warmest

high - higher - highest

dark - darker - darkest

    字尾有e時,只加rst

nice - nicer - nicest

close - closer -closest

cute - cuter - cutest

wide – wider -widest

safe - safer – safest

gentle –gentler -gentlest

    字尾為子音+y時,將y改為i再加erest

happy –happier-happiest

pretty-prettier-prettiest

dirty-dirtier-dirtiest

heavy-heavier-heaviest

noisy-noisier-noisiest

easy-easier-easiest

   注意:母音+y時,直接加erestEx. gray-grayer-grayest

    短母音+子音,重複子音再加erest 

big-bigger-biggest   hot-hotter-hottest   sad-sadder-saddest   fat-fatter-fattest   thin-thinner-thinnest  glad-gladder-gladdest   red-redder-reddest

    more / most 長字

(三音節以上的字及大多數二音節字,特別由 –ful, -less, -able, ive, ing 結尾的字)

beautiful - more beautiful - most beautiful

active – more active – most active

interesting – more interesting – most interesting

注意:happy(二音節)-happier à unhappy(三音節)-unhappier

    有些形容詞可以加erest或前面加上more / most來形成比較級和最高級

polite – politer more polite – politest most polite

其他如:quiet , handsome , common , pleasant

不規則變化:

good / well

better

best

 

bad

worse

worst

 

many / much

more

most

 

old

older

elder

oldest

eldest

年齡的比較、事物的新舊

長幼順序

late

later較晚的

latter稍後的

latest最新近的

last 最後的

時間的先後

順序的先後

far

farther更遠

further更進一步;更遠

farthest

furthest

表示距離

表示程度或距離

little

less

littler

least

littlest

關於量,much的相反

表示大小,等於small

My elder brother is three years older than your younger sister.

  His eldest son is the oldest student in our school.

  My sweater is older than yours.

  哥哥姊姊 elder brother/sister = older brother/sister

She came later than usual. (她比平常晚到。)

The Internet will give you the latest news.(網路會提供你最新的消息。)

He will be free in the latter part of the week.(他本週的下半周有空。)

His latest book may be his last book.(他最近出的書可能是他最後的書了。)

Kaohsiung is farther(further) from Taipei than Keelung.(從台北到高雄比到基隆遠。)

  The farthest(furthest) planet from the earth is Pluto.(離地球最遠的行星式冥王星。)

  I have nothing further to say on the subject.(對於這個主題我沒有什麼要講的了。)

  Have you any further need of me?(你還有要我幫忙的嗎?)

    很少 few – fewer – fewest + 可數名詞

        little – less – least + 不可數名詞

兩人()相比產生的結果

(1)   相同

Jack is as tall as David.

Jack is as handsome as David.

Jack has as much money as David.

(2)   超過優勢比較

Jack is taller than David.

Jack is more handsome than David.

Jack has more money than David.

(3)   不足劣勢比較 (不論長短字,一律用less)

Jack is less tall than David.

Jack is less handsome than David.

Jack has less money than David.

比較級的使用時機

(1) …. +比較級 + than ….

   The small box is heavier than the big box.

   Mr. Wang is thinner than Mr. Lin.

   A computer is more expensive than a bicycle.

   than + 主格受格

     You are taller than I. = You are taller than me.

     You are taller than I am.  (此處不得用受格)

     I like you better than he (likes you). 與主格比較

     I like you better than (I like) him.   與受格比較

   *比較的對象要合理而且不能與自己相比較

     (X) Your pencil is longer than I / me. 人與物比較

     (O) Your pencil is longer than mine.(=my pencil.)

     (X) Taipei is bigger than all the cities in Taiwan.所有城市包含Taipei

     (X) Taipei is bigger than any city in Taiwan.任何城市包含Taipei

     (O) Taipei is bigger than all the other cities in Taiwan. 所有/任何其他城市

     (O) Taipei is bigger than any other city in Taiwan.   則不包含Taipei

     (O) New York is bigger than all the cities/ any city in Taiwan. New York 不在台灣

        注意:all the other 複數 /  any other 單數

記法: any (任一個)+單數     all (全部-三者或三者以上) +複數

相同比較對象 需排除自己 加other  不同比較對象 不需排除自己    X

(2) Who / Which + be +比較級 , A or B ? 

Who is taller, Tom or John?

Which is more expensive, a bicycle or a computer?

(3) ~ + be + the 比較級 + of the two. (兩個之中比較的那一個,~包含在兩個之中)

Tom is the taller of the two. = Tom is taller than the other boy.

This jacket is the more expensive of the two.

= This jacket is more expensive than the other one.

(4) very + 原級much / a lot / even / far/a little  + 比較級

Tom is much taller than Jack. (TomJack高多了。)

A compute is much more expensive than a bicycle.

(5) 比較級 and 比較級

(越來越~~) ~er and ~er / more and more ~

   In summer, the days become longer and longer.

   We have more and more tests at school now.

   She likes eating fast food and is growing fatter and fatter.

   English becomes more and more important in our daily life.

   There will be less and less pollution if everyone helps to save our earth.

   After a typhoon, the vegetables become more and more expensive.

   (越來越不~~)less and less ~

   As we grow up, we will become less and less happy.

   He became less and less careful on his work and finally was fired.

(6) The 比較級 , the 比較級. ( ~~~~)         

   The more, the better.(越多越好。)

   The more he reads, the less the understands.(他越讀越不明白。)

   The older we grow, the poor our memory will become.(年紀越大,記憶力越差。)

 

否定句

Jack is not as tall as Tom. --Tom is taller than Jack. = Jack is shorter than Tom.

  Jack不像Tom那麼高。--TomJack高。

  I don’t have as many books as you. --You have more books than I.

                                    = I have fewer books than you.

  This car isn’t as expensive as that one. --That car is more expensive than this one.

                                       = This car is cheaper than that one.

Jack is not taller than Tom.  不完全等於 Jack is shorter than Tom.

  Jack並沒有比Tom高。-- 可能比Tom矮,也可能和Tom一樣高。

  I didn’t come earlier than you. We may come here at the same time.

  I don’t have more pens than you. Maybe I have as many pens as you.

 

最高級的使用時機: the / 所有格 + 最高級

(1)   在一個範圍或團體中 in ~

The elephant is the biggest animal in the zoo.

Helen is the most active student in my class.

(2)   Who / Which + be +最高級 ,  A, B, or C ?

Who is the tallest, Tom, Jack, or David?

Which is the most expensive, a bicycle, a motorcycle, or a car?

(3)   ~ + be + the 最高級 + of the three / of all. (三個以上或全部之中)

   Of the three / of all , ~ + be + the 最高級

Tom is the tallest of the three boys. = Tom is taller than the other two boys.

This one is the most expensive of all the cars in the store.

Of all the girls in my class, Helen is the most active.

Of all my friends, Tom is the most important one to me.

(4)   ~ + be + one of the +最高級 +複數名詞

Love River is one of the most beautiful rivers in Taiwan.

Mark is one of the best students in my class.

(5)   ~ + be + the 最高級 ~ that 某人 have/ has ever p.p.

This is the longest train that I have ever seen. (這是我見過最長的火車。)

This is the most interesting book that I have ever read.( 這是我看過有趣的書。)

原級、比較級、最高級互換

Taipei is the biggest city in Taiwan.

  = Taipei is bigger than any other city in Taiwan.

  = Taipei is bigger than all the other cities in Taiwan.

  = No other city in Taiwan is as big as Taipei.

  = No other cities in Taiwan are as big as Taipei.

Time is the most important of all things.

  = Time is more important than any other thing.

  = Nothing is more important than time.

  = Nothing is so important as time.

 PS.此資料取自網路,因忘記出處,所以未註明,版權方可以來信告知或回覆。

已修改網路資料文法錯誤部分

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