1. Paradox: A statement that appears illogical or contradictory at first, but may actually point to an underlying truth. "Less is more" is an example of a paradox. Literary examples include Francis Bacon's statement, "The most corrected copies are commonly the least correct," and "All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others" from George Orwell's Animal Farm.
3. Cavalier poetry: An early seventeenth-century movement, centered on Robert Herrick, Thomas Carew, John Suckling, Richard Lovelace, and Henry Vaughn. Most were admirers of Ben Jonson. They get their name from the supporters of King Charles I in the seventeenth century: the Cavaliers were Royalists during the Civil Wars.
4. Denotation: The definition of a word, apart from the impressions or feelings it creates in the reader. The word "apartheid" denotes a political and economic policy of segregation by race, but its connotations — oppression, slavery, inequality — are numerous.
5. Connotation: The impression that a word gives beyond its defined meaning. Connotations may be universally understood or may be significant only to a certain group. Both "horse" and "steed" denote the same animal, but "steed" has a different connotation, deriving from the chivalrous or romantic narratives in which the word was once often used.
6. Diction: The
selection and arrangement of words in a literary work. Either or both may vary
depending on the desired effect. There are four general types of diction:
"formal," used in scholarly or lofty writing; "informal,"
used in relaxed but educated conversation; "colloquial," used in
everyday speech; and "slang," containing newly coined
words and other terms not accepted in formal usage.
7. Allusion: A reference to a familiar literary or historical person or event, used to make an idea more easily understood. For example, describing someone as a "Romeo" makes an allusion to William Shakespeare's famous young lover in Romeo and Juliet.