※ 被動語態 Passive Voice

定義:

    該行為者無法做出該動作就要使用被動,如食物被吃、衣服被穿、照片被拍.....

    動的基本結構是 be動詞+PP

 

意:be動詞是助動詞, 主要動詞的詞彙意義在「過去分詞pp」。

     被動語態的BE動詞決定時態

中例:「小狗咬我」是主動的語法;「我狗咬」則是動的語

英例:The dog bit me. (為主動語態 active voice

           I was bitten by the dog. (為動語態 passive voice

步驟

句型變化及例句

接受動作者」當主詞

主詞           動詞              受詞.

Hank              hit            the girl.

The girl    was hit       by Hank.

主詞   be 動詞+過去分詞   by+受詞.

動詞改為be 動詞+過去分詞(p.p.

加入by+執行動作者

時態

被動式

現在式

主詞+am/is/are+過去分詞+(by+受詞)

過去式

主詞+was/were+過去分詞+(by+受詞)

未來式

主詞+will be+過去分詞+(by+受詞)

現在進行式

主詞+am/is/are being +過去分詞+(by+受詞)

現在完成式

主詞+has/have been+過去分詞+(by+受詞)

shouldcanmust 等助動詞

主詞+should/can/must be+過去分詞+(by+受詞)

Practice I:改成被動句

1.    Miss Lin teaches English.

English is taguht by Miss Lin.

2.He doesn't like me. 

I am not liked by him

3.Peter cleans his room every day. 

His room is cleaned by Peter every day.

4.They don't speak English.  

English is not spoken by them.

5. Do you watch TV every night? 

Is TV watched by you every night?

重點二:過去式被動句         主詞was / werep.p.by受詞

否定時                    主詞was / werenotp.p.by受詞

Practice 2:改成被動句

1. Miss Lin taught English.  

English was taught by Miss Lin

2. He didn't like me. 

I was not liked by him.

 

重點三:進行式被動句         主詞+be being p.p.by受詞

 

否定時                    主詞+benot+being+p.p.by受詞

 

Practice 3:改成被動句

1. Mom is cooking dinner. 

Dinner is being cooked by Mom

2. Peter was cleaning the room. 

The room was being cleaned by Peter.

3. You are not doing your homework. 

Your homework is not being done by you

do / does / did表達句動詞的否定或疑問,動時不必

例如:I didn't love you. 改成動則為 You were not loved by me.

Practice 4:改成被動句

1. Kevin won't close the windows.

The windows won't be closed by Kevin

2. You should collect those bottles. 

Those bottles should be collected by you.

3. People must do something good. 

Something good must be done by people.

4. They can't build the houses. 

The houses can't be built by them.

5. We don't grow rice. 

Rice isn't grown by us.

  Practice I:改成被動句

1. When did you finish the paper?

 When was the paper finished by you?

2. Where can people grow rice? 

Where can rice be grown by people?

重點九  感官動詞或使役動詞的被動語態 

句型:A +be +let/made/had+to +VR    (A被要求做某事)

         A+be+looked at/seen/watched/listened to/heard/felt/noticed +to Rv 

        (A被看到做某事)

主動:Mom made Susan wash the dishes this evening.

被動:Susan was made to wash the dishes this evening.

說明:感官動詞(seehearfeel)或使役動詞在主動句中受詞補語是「原形動詞」,而在被動句中,原來的受詞補語要改成「to-V」形式。

(1)原形動詞 (強調事實)

主動:I heard(過去式)  the bird sing in the tree.  (和使役動詞用法相同)

 被動:The bird was heard(P.P) to sing in the tree (by me).

 (2)Ving (強調看//注意到某事進行的過程)

 主動:I heard the bird singing in the tree.

 被動:The bird was heard(P.P) singing in the tree (by me).

重點十  授與動詞(如givesendtellteachask)的被動語態 
 
主動: Tom gave Mary a comic book.  (人→物)

 

被動:Mary was given a comic book by Tom.     B+be+pp++by+A

說明:主動句中的間接受詞(Mary)當被動式中的主詞時,不需介係詞。       

主動 : Tom gave a book to Mary.  (物→人)

被動:A comic book was given to Mary by Tom.  +be+p.p.+to /for B+by+A

說明:主動句中的直接受詞(a comic book)當被動式中的主詞時,需介係詞。

主動:Nancy bought Jack pearl milk tea.  

            Nancy bought pearl milk tea for Jack.
被動:Pearl milk tea was bought for Jack by Nancy.
=>主動句中的直接受詞(pearl milk tea)當被動式中的主詞時,需介係詞。
【誤】Jack was bought pearl milk tea by Nancy.=>語意上,Jack不會被買。

(5)含助動詞的被動語態
說明:may have pp指對過去可能的推測。
例如:The machine should have been used by engineers only. 
說明:should have pp指過去原本該做而沒做。
例如:Students have to do the homework by themselves.

The homework has to be done by students themselves. 

6)「連綴動詞」沒有被動

(如looktastehappencostlookfeelsmellbecome

另外cost(花費)、take(花費)、have(有)等動詞也沒有被動式。
(7 )  need
的主詞為物時,以現在分詞表被動。
例如:The dishes need washing.=>The dishes need to be washed.

綜合練習:

Part A:選擇題

(          ) 1. The hamburgers _________ by us.

           (A) were eating (B) were eating (C) were eaten (D) Ate

(          ) 2. The report has __________ by him.

          (A) written (B) being writing   (C) being written (D) been written (          ) 3. We can ______ the housework by ourselves.

          (A) done  (B) being done  (C) do  (D) be done

(          ) 4. English can ___________ in these schools.

               (A) is tautght   (B) be taught   (C) taught    (D) be teaching

(          ) 5. She ____ the eggs in the box last night.

                 The eggs ______ by her last night.

              (A) puts, are put         (B) put, are put 

              (C) put, were putting  (D) put, were put

(          ) 6. Many people ________ in the car accident.

              (A) killed (B) were killing (C) were killed (D) kill

(          ) 7. The bad man ______ his enemy with a knife.

              (A) killed (B) were killing (C) were killed (D) kill

(         ) 8. Jack was so happy. He was ___________ his good grades on the

               tests.

              (A)surprised by (B) surprising to (C) surprised (D) surprised at

(          ) 9. My brother is _________ the picture now.

              (A) painting (B) painted (C) been painted (D) being painted

(          ) 10. The picture is _________ by my brother now.

              (A) painting (B) painted (C) been painted (D) being painted

1.CDCBD 6.CADAD

 not so much...as... 與其說是……倒不如說是…… 

 英文教學遊戲 

英文單字闖關遊戲 複合形容詞 (2) 

 find, keep, leave, catch 文法 

 家族親戚的英文稱謂怎麼說 

 帶有使役之意卻使用不定詞(to V原)的動詞 

 連綴動詞 seem appear keep stay remain 

 複合形容詞 (2) 

 英文時間地點哪個先寫 

 How many How much 數量詞 

 現在簡單式─第三人稱單數 

take 用法總整理 

 複合不定代名詞的用法 

 Here倒裝句文法 

 come on 的用法 

 If 連接的句子到底要用現在式還是未來式 

 Because/so/because of 用法  

 Mr./Miss/Ms./Mrs.到底怎麼使用 

 used to VR /be used to V-ing / be used to  

 關係先行詞是 one of + 複數名詞 who/which 複數動詞 

 well 的用法 

 英文祈使的用法 

 現在進行式的用法 

 形容詞的用法 

 too to /so that /such that/enough to 文法 

 哪些動詞沒有被動語態 

 wish不可能實現的願望與hope之差別 

 have 用法總整理 

 從屬連接詞 when before after  

 感官動詞 look at /watch/see/ hear/ listen to/feel/notice/smell 

 high/highly/hard/hardly/late/lately 差別 

 不定代名詞 Both of /Two of 差別比較  

deal 相關片語 deal with/ No big deal 

 last/latest/last one 用法 

 Go+Ving 表從事某活動 文法 

 die death dead 的相關用法與片語 

 Go to church VS. Go to the church 有the沒the 大不同  

 國中易搞混與難分辨動詞 

 主動詞一致之名詞單複數意思不同與特殊複數形單字 

 work in /work for /work out /work at 

 someday one day the order day some other day 用法 

 else用法 

 英文動詞三態記憶口訣(3) 

 英文文法 whose 當疑問詞誰的&所有格代名詞 

 to與of 翻成...的 使用方法 

 動詞過去式過去分詞記憶口訣(2) 

 英文動詞三態記憶口訣(一) 

 英文課堂用語(2) Classroom English 

 英文字尾er/or/ist 職業相關英文單字 

 英文課堂用語(1) 

 英文時間星期縮寫與上下午AM/PM用法 

 英文單字marry(結婚)的用法 

 英文天氣相關說法與口訣 

連綴動詞 become/turn/ get/ come/fall/go/grow 

  關係代名詞子句當主詞使用 

使役動詞make have let get help 

 連綴動詞文法 

 雙賓動詞(授與動詞)文法(2) 

英文文法被動時態 

 附加問句文法 

 情態副詞用法(講義) 

 spend cost take 花錢花時間的用法(講義) 

 最高級(教學教材) 

 比較級教材(教學講義) 

 數量不定代名詞&代名詞與不定代名詞(講義) 

 時間介係詞 in at on  

 頻率副詞 

英文被動語態文法 

 現在完成式 

 talk speak say tell 說的用法 

 頻率副詞的用法 always usually often sometimes seldom never 

 天氣詢問法 What's the weather like? How's the weather? 

 英文問路與指路用法 

 英文常見量詞  

 There is/ There are 有某物在.... 

very , much , very much , only 副詞的用法 

不定代名詞one/another/the other 用法 

 英文文法附和句 

 英文年月日寫法 

 人稱代名詞、名詞單複數、所有格 

 英文時間表示法(幾點幾分英文) 

 四季春夏秋冬英文 

 neither...nor& either..or...&not only...but(also)... 

 星期英文星期一到星期日  

 數量詞的用法many much a few a little some any  

 關係代名詞當主詞、受詞、所有格 講義 

 後位修飾法 講義 形容詞片語修飾名詞

 How would you like your steak? 牛排幾分熟? 

 英文口語詢問別人怎麼了 

 too~to &so that 文法講義 

 

星期英文星期一到星期日  

 

12月份英文記憶口訣 

 

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