※ 被動語態 Passive Voice

定義:

    該行為者無法做出該動作就要使用被動,如食物被吃、衣服被穿、照片被拍.....

    動的基本結構是 be動詞+PP

 

意:be動詞是助動詞, 主要動詞的詞彙意義在「過去分詞pp」。

     被動語態的BE動詞決定時態

中例:「小狗咬我」是主動的語法;「我狗咬」則是動的語

英例:The dog bit me. (為主動語態 active voice

           I was bitten by the dog. (為動語態 passive voice

步驟

句型變化及例句

接受動作者」當主詞

主詞           動詞              受詞.

Hank              hit            the girl.

The girl    was hit       by Hank.

主詞   be 動詞+過去分詞   by+受詞.

動詞改為be 動詞+過去分詞(p.p.

加入by+執行動作者

時態

被動式

現在式

主詞+am/is/are+過去分詞+(by+受詞)

過去式

主詞+was/were+過去分詞+(by+受詞)

未來式

主詞+will be+過去分詞+(by+受詞)

現在進行式

主詞+am/is/are being +過去分詞+(by+受詞)

現在完成式

主詞+has/have been+過去分詞+(by+受詞)

shouldcanmust 等助動詞

主詞+should/can/must be+過去分詞+(by+受詞)

Practice I:改成被動句

1.    Miss Lin teaches English. ____________________________________________________________

2.He doesn't like me.  _______________________________________________________________

3.Peter cleans his room every day. ______________________________________________________________________

4.They don't speak English.  ________________________________________________________________

5. Do you watch TV every night? ______________________________________________________________________

重點二:過去式被動句         主詞was / werep.p.by受詞

否定時                    主詞was / werenotp.p.by受詞

Practice 2:改成被動句

1. Miss Lin taught English.  ____________________________________________________

2. He didn't like me.  _________________________________________________________

Practice 3:改成被動句

1. Mom is cooking dinner. ______________________________________________________________________

2. Peter was cleaning the room. ______________________________________________________________________

3. You are not doing your homework. _______________________________________________________________________

4. He was not riding a bicycle. _______________________________________________________________________

do / does / did表達句動詞的否定或疑問,動時不必

例如:I didn't love you. 改成動則為 You were not loved by me.

Practice 4:改成被動句

1. Kevin won't close the windows. ______________________________________

2. You should collect those bottles. _____________________________________

3. People must do something good. _____________________________________

4. They can't build the houses. __________________________________________

5. We don't grow rice. ___________________________________________________

 Practice I:改成被動句

1. People can eat the apples. _____________________________________________

2. They made those shoes in Taiwan. _____________________________________

3. Everyone must follow the traffic rules. ___________________________________

  Practice I:改成被動句

1. When did you finish the paper? _________________________________________

2. Where can people grow rice? _________________________________________

重點九  感官動詞或使役動詞的被動語態 

句型:A +be +let/made/had+to +VR    (A被要求做某事)

         A+be+looked at/seen/watched/listened to/heard/felt/noticed +to Rv 

        (A被看到做某事)

主動:Mom made Susan wash the dishes this evening.

被動:Susan was made to wash the dishes this evening.

說明:感官動詞(seehearfeel)或使役動詞在主動句中受詞補語是「原形動詞」,而在被動句中,原來的受詞補語要改成「to-V」形式。

(1)原形動詞 (強調事實)

主動:I heard(過去式)  the bird sing in the tree.  (和使役動詞用法相同)

 被動:The bird was heard(P.P) to sing in the tree (by me).

 (2)Ving (強調看//注意到某事進行的過程)

 主動:I heard the bird singing in the tree.

 被動:The bird was heard(P.P) singing in the tree (by me).

重點十  授與動詞(如givesendtellteachask)的被動語態 
 
主動: Tom gave Mary a comic book.  (人→物)

 

被動:Mary was given a comic book by Tom.     B+be+pp++by+A

說明:主動句中的間接受詞(Mary)當被動式中的主詞時,不需介係詞。       

主動 : Tom gave a book to Mary.  (物→人)

被動:A comic book was given to Mary by Tom.  +be+p.p.+to /for B+by+A

說明:主動句中的直接受詞(a comic book)當被動式中的主詞時,需介係詞。

主動:Nancy bought Jack pearl milk tea.  

            Nancy bought pearl milk tea for Jack.
被動:Pearl milk tea was bought for Jack by Nancy.
=>主動句中的直接受詞(pearl milk tea)當被動式中的主詞時,需介係詞。
【誤】Jack was bought pearl milk tea by Nancy.=>語意上,Jack不會被買。

(5)含助動詞的被動語態
說明:may have pp指對過去可能的推測。
例如:The machine should have been used by engineers only. 
說明:should have pp指過去原本該做而沒做。
例如:Students have to do the homework by themselves.

The homework has to be done by students themselves. 

6)「連綴動詞」沒有被動

(如looktastehappencostlookfeelsmellbecome

另外cost(花費)、take(花費)、have(有)等動詞也沒有被動式。
(7 )  need
的主詞為物時,以現在分詞表被動。
例如:The dishes need washing.=>The dishes need to be washed.

綜合練習:

Part A:選擇題

(          ) 1. The hamburgers _________ by us.

           (A) were eating (B) were eating (C) were eaten (D) Ate

(          ) 2. The report has __________ by him.

          (A) written (B) being writing   (C) being written (D) been written (          ) 3. We can ______ the housework by ourselves.

          (A) done  (B) being done  (C) do  (D) be done

(          ) 4. English can ___________ in these schools.

               (A) is tautght   (B) be taught   (C) taught    (D) be teaching

(          ) 5. She ____ the eggs in the box last night.

                 The eggs ______ by her last night.

              (A) puts, are put         (B) put, are put 

              (C) put, were putting  (D) put, were put

(          ) 6. Many people ________ in the car accident.

              (A) killed (B) were killing (C) were killed (D) kill

(          ) 7. The bad man ______ his enemy with a knife.

              (A) killed (B) were killing (C) were killed (D) kill

(         ) 8. Jack was so happy. He was ___________ his good grades on the

               tests.

              (A)surprised by (B) surprising to (C) surprised (D) surprised at

(          ) 9. My brother is _________ the picture now.

              (A) painting (B) painted (C) been painted (D) being painted

(          ) 10. The picture is _________ by my brother now.

              (A) painting (B) painted (C) been painted (D) being painted

Part B:被動語態語主動語態互改

 1. Computers are made in China.

 

2.. People know Harry Potter.

 

3. They have never seen elephants before.

 

Part C:以被動語態翻譯下列句子

1. 很多人使用手機

 

2. 爸爸告訴些孩子要拖地。

 

3. 座橋1975 年就好了。

 

4. 這家麵包店將在一星期後開

 

 free 單字用法 

 

not so much...as... 與其說是……倒不如說是…… 

 

英文教學遊戲 

 

英文筆記1 

 

英文單字闖關遊戲 複合形容詞 (2) 

 

find, keep, leave, catch 文法 

 

家族親戚的英文稱謂怎麼說 

 

帶有使役之意卻使用不定詞(to V原)的動詞 

 

連綴動詞 seem appear keep stay remain 

 

複合形容詞 (2) 

 

英文時間地點哪個先寫 

 

How many How much 數量詞 

 

現在簡單式─第三人稱單數 

 

How to use some & any 

 

take 用法總整理 

 

複合不定代名詞的用法 

 

Here倒裝句文法 

 

come on 的用法 

 

If 連接的句子到底要用現在式還是未來式 

 

Because/so/because of 用法  

 

Mr./Miss/Ms./Mrs.到底怎麼使用 

 

used to VR /be used to V-ing / be used to  

 

關係先行詞是 one of + 複數名詞 who/which 複數動詞 

 

well 的用法 

 

英文祈使句的用法 

 

現在進行式的用法 

 

形容詞的用法 

 

too to /so that /such that/enough to 文法 

 

哪些動詞沒有被動語態 

 

wish不可能實現的願望與hope之差別 

 

have 用法總整理 

 

從屬連接詞 when before after  

 

感官動詞 look at /watch/see/ hear/ listen to/feel/notice/smell 

 

high/highly/hard/hardly/late/lately 差別 

 

不定代名詞 Both of /Two of 差別比較  

 

How to compliment on somebody's clothes? 如何用英文稱讚別人的衣著 

 

Own 的使用方式 of one's own /on one's own 

 

as...as和...一樣 動物比喻 

 

deal 相關片語 deal with/ No big deal 

 

last/latest/last one 用法 

 

Go+Ving 表從事某活動 文法 

 

die death dead 的相關用法與片語 

 

Go to church VS. Go to the church 有the沒the 大不同  

 

國中易搞混與難分辨動詞 

 

主動詞一致之名詞單複數意思不同與特殊複數形單字 

 

work in /work for /work out /work at 

 

someday one day the order day some other day 用法 

 

else用法 

 

英文動詞三態記憶口訣(3) 

 

英文文法 whose 當疑問詞誰的&所有格代名詞 

 

to與of 翻成...的 使用方法 

 

動詞過去式過去分詞記憶口訣(2) 

 

英文動詞三態記憶口訣(一) 

 

英文課堂用語(2) Classroom English 

 

英文字尾er/or/ist 職業相關英文單字 

 

英文課堂用語(1) 

 

英文時間星期縮寫與上下午AM/PM用法 

 

英文單字marry(結婚)的用法 

 

英文天氣相關說法與口訣 

 

過去式 when 當連接詞 

 

Where 疑問副詞用法 

 

連綴動詞 become/turn/ get/ come/fall/go/grow 

 

反身代名詞  

 

過去完成式  

 

國中文法練習題 間接問句 too~to so~that 介係詞片語 

 

so neither too either 用法 附和句 

 

間接問句題目練習 

 

授與動詞(雙賓動詞)記憶口訣 

 

Wh問句與BE動詞問句(1) What time how often how long how far how soon 

 

交通工具搭乘表示文法 

 

12月份英文記憶口訣 

 

未來式 Will & be going to  

 

To VR 不定詞&V-ing 動名詞文法(2018.10.12更新) 

 

詢問如何前往某地文法 How did you get to school yesterday? 

 

過去式動詞變化型 

 

過去式文法句型 

 

過去式BE動詞was were  

 

英文單字聯想記憶術(國中1200字) 

 

雙字片語可分式片語與不可分式片語總整理(2017.3.15更新) 

 

被動語態(感官&使役&授與動詞)

 

關係代名詞子句當主詞使用 

 

過去分詞當形容詞 

 

比較級與最高級(2020.09.23更新) 

 

使役動詞make have let get help 

 

連綴動詞文法 

 

雙賓動詞(授與動詞)文法(2) 

 

間接問句講義&練習題 

 

英文文法被動時態 

 

附加問句文法 

 

情態副詞用法(講義) 

 

spend cost take 花錢花時間的用法(講義) 

 

最高級(教學教材) 

 

比較級教材(教學講義) 

 

數量不定代名詞&代名詞與不定代名詞(講義) 

 

時間介係詞 in at on  

 

頻率副詞 

 

間接問句題目練習 

 

英文被動語態文法 

 

現在完成式 

 

talk speak say tell 說的用法 

 

頻率副詞的用法 always usually often sometimes seldom never 

 

天氣詢問法 What's the weather like? How's the weather? 

 

英文問路與指路用法 

 

英文常見量詞  

 

There is/ There are 有某物在.... 

 

過去進行式 

 

very , much , very much , only 副詞的用法 

 

詢問日期與星期 

 

do 與make 用法的不同  

 

不定代名詞one/another/the other 用法 

 

英文文法附和句 

 

英文年月日寫法 

 

人稱代名詞、名詞單複數、所有格 

 

英文時間表示法(幾點幾分英文) 

 

四季春夏秋冬英文 

 

neither...nor& either..or...&not only...but(also)... 

 

星期英文星期一到星期日  

 

數量詞的用法many much a few a little some any  

 

關係代名詞當主詞、受詞、所有格 講義 

 

後位修飾法 講義 形容詞片語修飾名詞

 

How would you like your steak? 牛排幾分熟? 

 

英文口語詢問別人怎麼了 

 

too~to &so that 文法講義 

 

間接問句(whether&if)Yes or No 疑問句改間接問句 講義 

 

英文簡易常用介係詞 

 

    阿莓莓KIKI 發表在 痞客邦 留言(1) 人氣()