句型:主詞(動作的承受者)+be動詞+過去分詞pp+(by +動作的施予者)不能做出該動作的主詞就要使用被動,如食物被吃、衣服被穿、照片被拍.....

被動的基本結構是 be動詞+PP

注意:be動詞是助動詞, 主要動詞的詞彙意義在「過去分詞pp」。

   被動語態的BE動詞決定時態

   不一定都有「by ….」片語。動作的產生者為people、you、we、they、someone等不特定對象時,「by ….」片語可省略。

      時態     變化
 現在簡單式的被動  is / am / are+p.p. 
 過去簡單式的被動  was / were+p.p.
   未來簡單式的被動
 will be+p.p.   
 現在進行式的被動   is / am / are+being+p.p.
 過去進行式的被動   was / were+being+p.p.
 現在完成式的被動  have / has been p.p.
 過去完成式的被動   had / been p.p.

   連綴動詞~feel,look,sound,taste,smell,get沒有被動形式

1)「by…」之外用於被動句的介系詞片語
例如:My father was surprised at the news.=>The news surprised my father.
例如:My brother is bored with math.=>Math bores my brother.
例如:A lot of people are excited about Harry Potter.=>Harry Potter excites a lot of people.

be known to (~所知)

be filled with =be full of (被充滿)

be covered with (被覆蓋)

be made of (材料可見)  be made from (型態改變) 以~製成
一、被動語態的各種形式
1否定句
例如:The cake was not made by Mom.          

說明:在「be動詞」後面加not
例如:The wound must not be moved at randon.    

說明:在助動詞後面加not
2疑問句
1. be
動詞為首的問句=>依一般Yes-No句型變化之。
直述句:Most of the websites are built in English.  

疑問句:Are most of the websites built in English?
回答:Yes, they are.
2.
疑問詞為首的問句=>依一般疑問詞句型變化之【疑問詞+be動詞+主詞…..】。

直述句:John put the book on the desk yesterday.

1)疑問句:問:When was the book put on the desk by John? 答:Yesterday.
2)問:Where was the book put by John yesterday?         答:On the desk.
3)問:What was put on the desk by John yesterday?        答:The book.
(4 )
問:By whom was the book put on the desk yesterday?    答:John.
說明:詢問被動動作的產生者(John)時,須以「介係詞+whom/ what」為首來發問。
例如:The book was written by a famous artist. =>By whom was the book written?
例如:The bugs have been killed by the modern machine. =>By what have the bugs been killed?
3感官動詞或使役動詞的被動語態

句型:A +be +let/made/had+to +VR   (A被要求做某事)

     A+be+looked at/seen/watched/listened to/heard/felt/noticed +to Rv (A被看到做某事)

主動:Mom made Susan wash the dishes this evening.被動:Susan was made to wash the dishes this evening.
說明:感官動詞(seehearfeel)或使役動詞在主動句中受詞補語是「原形動詞」,而在被動句中,原來的受詞補語要改成「to-V」形式。
4授與動詞(如givesendtellteachask)的被動語態
主動:Tom gave Mary a comic book.被動:Mary was given a comic book by Tom. B+be+pp++by+A
說明:主動句中的間接受詞(Mary)當被動式中的主詞時,不需介係詞。

Tom gave a book to Mary. 被動:A comic book was given to Mary by Tom. +be+p.p.+to /for B+by+A
說明:主動句中的直接受詞(a comic book)當被動式中的主詞時,需介係詞。

 

主動:Nancy bought Jack pearl milk tea. Nancy bought pearl milk tea for Jack.
被動:Pearl milk tea was bought for Jack by Nancy.
=>主動句中的直接受詞(pearl milk tea)當被動式中的主詞時,需介係詞。
【誤】Jack was bought pearl milk tea by Nancy.=>語意上,Jack不會被買。
5)含助動詞的被動語態
說明:may have pp指對過去可能的推測。
例如:The machine should have been used by engineers only.
說明:should have pp指過去原本該做而沒做。
例如:Students have to do the homework by themselves.The homework has to be done by students themselves.
1.
由於助動詞的關係,be動詞要用原形,而be動詞之後的結構不變。
2.
含助動詞的被動語態的否定句是將助動詞改為否定形式,而不是在be後面加not
3.
「連綴動詞」(如looktastehappencosthave(有)、lookfeelsmellbecome)沒有被動形式;另外,cost(花費)、take(花費)、have(有)等動詞也沒有被動式。
4. need
的主詞為物時,以現在分詞表被動。
例如:The dishes need washing.=>The dishes need to be washed.

6)表示客觀的說明,且說話者無特定對象時可用「It is p.p. that 名詞子句」的句型(等於 People ……)。
例如:It is believed by many people that it is bad luck to enter the tomb.
=>people believe that it is bad luck to enter the tomb.
其他常見片語有:
It is said that….
(據說)、It is reported…(據報導)、
It is thought….(大家認為)


 感官動詞 look at /watch/see/ hear/ listen to/feel/notice/smell 

使役動詞make have let get help 

授與動詞(雙賓動詞)記憶口訣 

感官動詞VS.連綴動詞傻傻搞不懂!! 

帶有使役之意卻使用不定詞(to V原)的動詞 

連綴動詞 seem appear keep stay remain 

 

 free 單字用法 

not so much...as... 與其說是……倒不如說是…… 

英文教學遊戲 

家族親戚的英文稱謂怎麼說 

帶有使役之意卻使用不定詞(to V原)的動詞 

哪些動詞沒有被動語態 

連綴動詞文法 

英文文法被動時態 

吃湯還是喝湯eat soup or drink soup 

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