一、定義

「形容詞比較級」是用來比較人、事、物「兩者之間」程度的差異。

例:(1) William is taller than Samuel.(William身高比Samuel高。)

                   人   身高比較    人

          (2) The car is more expensive than the truck.(那輛汽車價格比那輛卡車貴。)

                  車            價格比較              車

二、形容詞比較級的形成

1. 規則變化

規則

原級

比較級

單音節

字尾直接加 -er

long(長的)

longer

字尾為不發音e,直接加 -r

nice(好的)

nicer

字尾為「短母音+單子音」,

重複字尾子音字母再加 -er

big(大的)

bigger

字尾為「子音+y」,去字尾 -y -ier

dry(乾的)

drier

雙音節

字尾為「子音+y」,去字尾 -y -ier

busy(忙碌的)

busier

直接在形容詞前加more

handsome(英俊的)

more handsome

多音節

三個音節以上,在形容詞前加more

beautiful(美麗的)

more beautiful

2.  不規則變化

     有些形容詞變成比較級時,會連原來的樣子都改變,稱為不規則變化,這些形容詞須熟記

     例:(1) good → better                    (2) bad → worse        

           (3) many / much → more         (4) little → less               

           (5) far farther / further         (6) old older / elder

3.有些雙音節形容詞,字尾直接加 -er,也可在字前加 more 來形成比較級

例:(1) quiet → quieter / more quiet        

     (2) polite → politer / more polite

(3) simple → simpler / more simple  

(4) common → commoner / more common

補充

1. elder 為英式英語,用在指家庭關係中表示長幼順序中「較長的」,且用在名詞之前。

old的比較級older為年齡上「較大的」,或事物「較舊的」

     例:【Jeff is Amy’s elder / older brother.JeffAmy的哥哥。)

           He’s two years older than Amy.(他的年紀比Amy大兩歲。)

          【╳】He’s two years elder than Amy. elder要放在名詞之前

2. fartherfurther在比較級中,若指的是實際距離上的「更遠」,兩者意思相同;但若要指程度上「更進一步的」,則用further

例:【My home is farther / further than the library.

(我家的距離比圖書館還遠。)

       For further information, please ask Jane.

(如想知道進一步的資訊,請問Jane。)

       【╳】For farther information, please ask Jane.

farther有「進一步的」的意思

3. late的比較級later意為「較遲的」,表示時間上較晚發生的。

 latter解釋為「較後面的」,表示在順序上較後面的。

例:(1) A-Rod became famous in 1990. Chien-Ming Wang was later than him.

   (A-Rod 在一九九○年成名。王建民比他晚。)

  (2) Between Rivera and Chien-Ming Wang, the latter one is younger.

   (在 Rivera 與王建民之間,後者比較年輕。)

  很少 few – fewer – fewest + 可數名詞

        little – less – least + 不可數名詞

        ˙寫出正確的比較級形式

 1. dirty→                      2. many     →          

 3. little→                       4. wet  →          

 5. dark→                       6. light →          

 7. true →                       8. quiet      →          

 9. new     →                10. good →          

11. handsome →            12. successful →          

13. exciting →                   14. rainy →          

三、結構

1. 基本句型:「Abe動詞或連綴動詞+形容詞比較級+thanB.

    (1)AB為用來相互比較的人、事或物。

           例:The bread smells better than the cake.(這個麵包聞起來比那個蛋糕還香。)

            比較兩種食物的味道,動詞smell為連綴動詞

˙整句式翻                                                                                              1. HarryWilliam   Harry is younger than William.              

2. BenEason高。  Ben is taller than Eason.                    

(2)thanB」在句子意思很清楚、不需要比較對象時,可以省略。

      例:Yesterday was hot, but today is even hotter.(昨天很熱,但今天甚至更熱。)

          比較兩天的天氣,由於前一句已說明比較對象,故後一句省略than yesterday

 (3) 避免重複對稱的比較對象,可用that代替單數名詞或不可數名詞,用those代替複數名詞。

           例:1 The climate of Kaohsiung is hotter than that of Taipei.

               比較高雄和臺北的天氣,省略重複的名詞the climate,改用代名詞that

                     (高雄的氣候比臺北的氣候還要熱。)

                 2 The bananas in this basket are sweeter than those on the table.

           → 比較籃子裡和桌子上的香蕉,省略重複的名詞the bananas,改用代名詞those

                           (這個籃子裡的香蕉比桌子上的那些香蕉要甜。)

   (4) 若比較的對象為相同的人或物品時,可將句中重複出現的「所有格+名詞」以「所有格代名詞」       代替。

        例:Her ruler is longer than mine.(她的尺比我的尺長。)

       → 比較兩個人的尺,省略重複的名詞ruler,改用所有格代名詞mine= my ruler

    (5)「兩者之中」的比較:「Abe動詞+the+形容詞比較級+of the two(+複數名詞).

       例:1 Nancy is the more beautiful of the two.Nancy是兩者之中比較漂亮的。)

        2 David is the smarter of the two boys.David是這兩個男孩之中比較聰明的。)

    (6) 形容詞比較級前,可以加上副詞mucha lota littleeven來修飾,但不可用very接修       飾形容詞比較級。

        例:【╳】He is very taller than his father. → very不可直接修飾比較級taller

              He is much taller than his father. → much修飾taller

                       (他比他父親高多了。)

˙訂正句子的錯誤

1. Your apple is bigger than her.

 Your apple is bigger than hers.                                                                      

2. Justin is more healthier than his brother.

Justin is much / a lot healthier than his brother.                                               

3. Canada is more bigger than Taiwan.

 Canada is much / a lot bigger than Taiwan.                                                 

4. Her book is good than Emma.

 Her book is better than Emma’s.                                                                    

5. Yoga Lin’s songs are popularer than you.

Her book is better than Emma’s.                                                                     

2. Which+單數名詞is+形容詞比較級, A or B?

 例:Which is sweeter, the apple or the mango?(這蘋果和這芒果哪一個比較甜?)3. 原級比較:「Abe動詞或連綴動詞+as+形容詞原級+asB.」。

     例:(1) Terry is as handsome as Bob.TerryBob一樣帥。)

          (2) My cat looks as big as your dog.(我的貓看起來和你的狗一樣大。)

否定句

Jack is not as tall as Tom.

 Tom is taller than Jack. = Jack is shorter than Tom.

  Jack不像Tom那麼高。--TomJack高。

  I don’t have as many books as you.

   You have more books than I.

   = I have fewer books than you.

  This car isn’t as expensive as that one.

That car is more expensive than this one.

= This car is cheaper than that one.

Jack is not taller than Tom.  不完全等於 Jack is shorter than Tom.

  Jack並沒有比Tom高。-- 可能比Tom矮,也可能和Tom一樣高。

  I didn’t come earlier than you. We may come here at the same time.

  I don’t have more pens than you. Maybe I have as many pens as you.

4. 形容詞比較級+and+形容詞比較級」用來表示「越來越……」。

  例:The weather is getting colder and colder.(天氣越來越冷。)

5. the+比較級句子, the+比較級句子」用來表示「兩個事物的條件一起改變」。

 例:The smaller the bag is, the lower the price is.(袋子越小,價格就越低。)

˙依提示填入適當的形容詞

1.  Going camping is  more interesting  (interesting) than being a couch potato.

2.  This computer is  better  (good) than Henry’s.

3.  Sue is as  hard-working (hard-working) as Lee. They are both good students.

4.  Jay is as   young  (young) as Tiffany. They are both thirty-one years old.

5.  America looks a lot   bigger  (big) than Taiwan on the map.

6.  Taipei 101 is   taller   (tall) than the Empire State Building(帝國大廈).

7.The old man is as   healthy  (healthy) as a teenager because he practices
Tai-Chi(太極拳)every morning.

8. Hsinchu(新竹)is   windier  (windy) than any other city in Taiwan.

文法選擇

( A )  1. Tom is     than Jerry.

               (A) taller    (B) more tall       (C) tall      (D) very tall

( C )  2. China is     than Japan on the map.
(A) more    (B) more big    (C) much bigger     (D) much big

( B )  3. Jogging is     than playing baseball. But playing baseball is more interesting.
(A) easy     (B) easier      (C) much easy        (D) still easy

( A )  4. Natasha and Stephanie are twin sisters. Natasha is as     as Stephanie.
(A) old        (B) older          (C) much old        (D) more old

( B )  5. I am sick all the time, but my sister is never sick. She is     than I am.
(A) healthy    (B) healthier      (C) much healthy   (D) more healthy

( D )  6. Pope’s life is busier than    . He has to visit a lot of countries every year.
(A) my       (B) I        (C) me     (D) mine

( B )  7. The boy is     than other kids. He isn’t outgoing(外向的).

                (A) quiet   (B) quieter    (C) very quiet    (D) much quiet

( C )  8. Baseball fans are     this time than last time because the pitcher(投手)did something(某事)wrong again.
(A) sad         (B) more sad    (C) sadder         (D) very sad

( B )  9. The food smells     than yesterday. Please just throw it away.

                (A) bad         (B) worse     (C) very bad       (D) very worse

( A ) 10. Mariah Carey sings the song I’ll Be There beautifully. I can’t think of any other singer with a     voice.

             (A) better  (B) good (C) more

(  C   )11. Lucy looks     in pants than in a dress.

                  (A) beautiful     (B) as beautiful  (C) more beautiful    

                  (D) much beautiful

(  B  )12. Cathy was     than everyone else(其他人)when she won the game.

                     (A) very happier           (B) much happier        

                      (C) a lot happy            (D) much more happy

(  D  )13. The oranges in the bag are fresher than     in the basket.

              (A) it   (B) that   (C) them    (D) those

(  C  )14. Helen’s house is bigger than    .  (A) my (B) me  (C) mine  (D) I am

(  D  )15. The cat is     as a small tiger.

                (A) big         (B) bigger (C) more big       (D) as big

圈選正確的答案

1.  John is thirty years (  older  /  elder  ) than his son.

2.  This computer is (  bad  /  worse  ) than that one.

3.  The black jacket is expensive, but the white one is even (  expensive  /  more expensive  ).

4.  Vicky is as (  polite  /  more polite  ) as her sister.

5.  The pants are (  very  /  a little  ) shorter. We need to get another pair.

整句式翻譯

1.  TimJack強壯。

Tim is stronger than Jack.                                                                                       

2.  Susan的頭髮比Mary的頭髮長。

Susan’s hair is longer than Mary’s.                                                                           

3.  Paul是這兩個學生之中比較重的那一個。

Paul is the heavier of the two students.                                                                   4.  這漢堡嚐起來比這比薩好吃得多。

The hamburger tastes much / a lot better than the pizza.                                           

5.  哪一個科目比較困難,數學或是自然科學?

 Which subject is more difficult, math or science?

資料來源:康軒文教

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