前言:若連接下列兩句子 (1) I like the girl. (2) The girl has big eyes.

      必須靠一個連接詞I like the girl, and she has big eyes.

      若用關係代名詞則I like the girl who has big eyes

      由此可知關係代名詞具有連接詞代名詞兩大功能

至於關係,也就是兩個句子中間必須有所關聯,也就是同一個人事物的意思

關係子句:關係代名詞具有形容詞的功用,所以又稱為形容詞子句,可以用來補充說明先行詞與形容先行詞。

先行詞:關係代名詞前所形容的名詞

重點一:關係代名詞需依其先行詞而決定

先行詞

關係代名詞(當主詞用)

關係代名詞(當受詞用)

關係代名詞

(當所有格用)

who

(亦可使用that)

whom  (可省略)

(亦可使用thatwho)

whose

which

(亦可使用that)

which   (可省略)

亦可使用that

whose

of which

+

that

that

whose

(1)    主格:關係子句缺乏 ______________,且後接 __________

主格例句:This is the man who bought the book for me.

(2)    所有格:後接_____________,且表與先行詞的所有格的關係

所有格例句:This is the doll whose eyes are big and round.

(3) 受格:關係子句已有_______________,即表不需主格關代,且是關係子句中動詞或介係詞的_________

   受格例句:This is the man whom I met last night.

Practice I:關係代名詞當主詞用

  1. a.      句子中的動詞需依先行詞作變化       b.關代連接的句子視為形容詞子句

例句: I like the person. / The person has a good heart.

合併→ I like the person       has a good heart.(因為關係子句缺少主詞,所以要用主格的關代)

結果→ I like the person who has a good heart.   亦可→ I like the person that has a good heart.

EX1. I eat the apples____________  from Japan.      2. Mary and her dog ________  playing here come from America.

  3. Kelly and Linda have a friend who _______ the puppy.  4. She likes the book ________ is on the desk.

重點二:二個句子若有「因果」、「時間先後」、「身份、特質或動作」等關係時,需照下表三大原則合併;若無,則可任意合併:

原則

關係子句

主要子句

因果

時間先後

身份特質或動作

動作

身份特質

       1.   I like people. / People are kind and friendly.(以代名詞who / that 合併)


 I like the people are kind and friendly.

2.   She likes the doll. / The doll is wearing a skirt.

 She likes the doll which is wearing a skirt.

3.   The cats are mine. / The cats have big eyes.

 The cats which have big eyes are mine.

4.   The girl speaks English well. / The girl is standing over there.

       The girl is standing over there speaks English well.

 關係代名詞必須使用that的情況如下

1 先行詞是人+物時

Look at the man and his dog that are playing there.

2 先行詞有最高級時

Here is the best novel that I have ever read.

3 先行詞有序數時

She is the first woman that won the game.

4 前面已有wh疑問詞時

Where is the man that bought the ticket?

5先行詞有;

the same(相同)

the very(正是)

the only(唯一)

no / any / all / every 等字

 

He is the same man that we met.

This is the very book that I lost yesterday.

Here is the only pen that I have.

Any man that listens to him is a fool.

重點三:絕對不可用關代 that的狀況有:

 注意:介詞或逗點之後不可使用that(關代前有逗號為非限定用法-為副詞子句或對等子句)

1 先行詞前有介係詞時

 

Here is the house which I live in.

=Here is the house that I live in.that 代替which

=Here is the house in which I live.in 可放前面)

× Here is the house in that I live.in 在前不用that

2 先行詞前有逗號時

 

○ I know the man who / that came here yesterday.

× I know John, that came here yesterday

(      ) 1. I know the man _____ bought the house.  A

  (A) who (B) what (C) which (D) ×

(      ) 2. Do you like the house _______ was bought by Peter? A

  (A) that (B) whom (C) who (D) ×

(      ) 3. God helps those ______ help themselves. B

(A) that (B) who (C) × (D) what

(      ) 4. There are a man and a dog _____ are walking along the street.C

         (A) who (B) which (C) that (D) ×

(      ) 5. Who is the girl _____ is sitting over there?    A

(A) that (B) which (C) × (D) whom

(      ) 6. This is the most interesting storybook _____ I have ever had.C

(A) what (B) who (C) that (D) whom

重點四:關係代名詞當受詞用

例句:I enjoyed the pizza. Dad bought the pizza last night.

合併:I enjoyed the pizza which  Dad bought last night.

(因為關係子句已有主詞,故不需主格關代,且句中受詞the pizza沒出現,故需要受格關代)

結果:I enjoyed the pizza which Dad bought last night.

亦可:I enjoyed the pizza that Dad bought last night.

重點五:主格與受格的差異

1 主格關代

 

可以用that替代

絕對不可省略

2 受格關代

可以用that

或主格關代替代可以省略,但前有介係詞或逗號時則不可省略亦不可替代!

 

1. I know the man who / that bought the car.

I know the man bought the car.×)主格不可省略

2. I know the man whom / that / ×(省略) you talked about.

I know the man about whom you talked.介係詞可放前

I know the man about that you talked.×有介係詞不可替換

重點六:限定用法與非限定用法

1. 表關係子句有限定及修飾先行詞的作用

2. 關係子句前後不加「,」

3. 可用that 代替who / whom / which

4. 受格關代可省略

5. 因為限定,故指條件相同的不只一位

I need a man who can speak English.

(我需要一位會說英語的人。)

說明:擁有會說英語條件的人不只一位

 

1. 表關係子句僅作補述之用,不用來限定或修飾先行詞

2. 關係子句前後需加「,」

3. 不可用關代that

4. 受格關代不可省略

5. 因為補述,故僅指一個對象

Tony's sister, who lives in Tainan, is coming back.

(湯尼的姊姊要回來了,她目前住在台南。)

說明:湯尼的姊姊只有一位,她住在台南僅作補述之用

 補充:關係子句與分詞片語的替換(主動用現在分詞;被動用過去分詞)

 

例句:I know the man who is standing over there. = I know the man standing over there.

例句:I know the man who was bitten by my dog. = I know the man bitten by my dog.

資料來自康軒文教

 

所有格關代顧名思義就是與兩個句子間的關係是所有格關係,也就是誰的~

例:  My father has a car. The color of the car are red.

這兩句中間的關係就是車子,而前面那句與後面那句的車子有著所有關係

因此便可使用關代所有格 My father has a car whose color are red.

演變過程為 My father has a car the color of which are red.

My father has a car of which the color are red.

My father has a car whose color are red.

例2: Tom likes the girl  whose hair is long and straight. ( Tom 喜歡的女孩的頭髮是又直又長)

I want to buy the book whose cover is a May day. (我想要買那本封面是五月天的書)

所有格關代後緊接一個名詞,後接動詞

 關係子句與介系詞片語、分詞片語替換

 (中文)那位穿著藍色T-shirt的女孩是我朋友。

 (英文)The girl who wears a blue T-shirt is my friend.(關係子句寫法)       

 (英文)The girl in a blue T-shirt is my friend.(介系詞片語寫法)

 (英文)The girl wearing a blue T-shirt is my friend.(分詞片語寫法)

 à因為「穿著」這個動作對先行詞「女孩」來說是主動,故可省略關係代名詞,將動詞改為現在分詞,關係子句轉換為「分詞片語」。

 原句為The girl who is wearing a blue T-shirt is my friend.  那位正穿著藍色T-shirt的女孩是我朋友


 關係先行詞是 one of + 複數名詞 who/which 複數動

準關係代名詞 as but than文法 notes 

複合關係代名詞what 關係副詞 when where 分詞片語ving&p.p. 

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