前言:若連接下列兩句子 (1) I like the girl. (2) The girl has big eyes.

      必須靠一個連接詞I like the girl, and she has big eyes.

      若用關係代名詞則I like the girl who has big eyes

      由此可知關係代名詞具有連接詞代名詞兩大功能

至於關係,也就是兩個句子中間必須有所關聯,也就是同一個人事物的意思

關係子句:關係代名詞具有形容詞的功用,所以又稱為形容詞子句,可以用來補充說明先行詞與形容先行詞。

先行詞:關係代名詞前所形容的名詞

重點一:關係代名詞需依其先行詞而決定

先行詞

關係代名詞(當主詞用)

關係代名詞(當受詞用)

關係代名詞

(當所有格用)

who

(亦可使用that)

whom  (可省略)

(亦可使用thatwho)

whose

which

(亦可使用that)

which   (可省略)

亦可使用that

whose

of which

+

that

that

whose

(1)    主格:關係子句缺乏 ______________,且後接 __________

主格例句:This is the man who bought the book for me.

(2)    所有格:後接_____________,且表與先行詞的所有格的關係

所有格例句:This is the doll whose eyes are big and round.

(3) 受格:關係子句已有_______________,即表不需主格關代,且是關係子句中動詞或介係詞的_________

   受格例句:This is the man whom I met last night.

Practice I:關係代名詞當主詞用

  1. a.      句子中的動詞需依先行詞作變化       b.關代連接的句子視為形容詞子句

例句: I like the person. / The person has a good heart.

合併→ I like the person       has a good heart.(因為關係子句缺少主詞,所以要用主格的關代)

結果→ I like the person who has a good heart.   亦可→ I like the person that has a good heart.

EX1. I eat the apples____________  from Japan.      2. Mary and her dog ________  playing here come from America.

  3. Kelly and Linda have a friend who _______ the puppy.  4. She likes the book ________ is on the desk.

重點二:二個句子若有「因果」、「時間先後」、「身份、特質或動作」等關係時,需照下表三大原則合併;若無,則可任意合併:

原則

關係子句

主要子句

因果

時間先後

身份特質或動作

動作

身份特質

       1.   I like people. / People are kind and friendly.(以代名詞who / that 合併)


 I like the people are kind and friendly.

2.   She likes the doll. / The doll is wearing a skirt.

 She likes the doll which is wearing a skirt.

3.   The cats are mine. / The cats have big eyes.

 The cats which have big eyes are mine.

4.   The girl speaks English well. / The girl is standing over there.

       The girl is standing over there speaks English well.

 關係代名詞必須使用that的情況如下

1 先行詞是人+物時

Look at the man and his dog that are playing there.

2 先行詞有最高級時

Here is the best novel that I have ever read.

3 先行詞有序數時

She is the first woman that won the game.

4 前面已有wh疑問詞時

Where is the man that bought the ticket?

5先行詞有;

the same(相同)

the very(正是)

the only(唯一)

no / any / all / every 等字

 

He is the same man that we met.

This is the very book that I lost yesterday.

Here is the only pen that I have.

Any man that listens to him is a fool.

重點三:絕對不可用關代 that的狀況有:

 注意:介詞或逗點之後不可使用that(關代前有逗號為非限定用法-為副詞子句或對等子句)

1 先行詞前有介係詞時

 

Here is the house which I live in.

=Here is the house that I live in.that 代替which

=Here is the house in which I live.in 可放前面)

× Here is the house in that I live.in 在前不用that

2 先行詞前有逗號時

 

○ I know the man who / that came here yesterday.

× I know John, that came here yesterday

(      ) 1. I know the man _____ bought the house.  A

  (A) who (B) what (C) which (D) ×

(      ) 2. Do you like the house _______ was bought by Peter? A

  (A) that (B) whom (C) who (D) ×

(      ) 3. God helps those ______ help themselves. B

(A) that (B) who (C) × (D) what

(      ) 4. There are a man and a dog _____ are walking along the street.C

         (A) who (B) which (C) that (D) ×

(      ) 5. Who is the girl _____ is sitting over there?    A

(A) that (B) which (C) × (D) whom

(      ) 6. This is the most interesting storybook _____ I have ever had.C

(A) what (B) who (C) that (D) whom

重點四:關係代名詞當受詞用

例句:I enjoyed the pizza. Dad bought the pizza last night.

合併:I enjoyed the pizza which  Dad bought last night.

(因為關係子句已有主詞,故不需主格關代,且句中受詞the pizza沒出現,故需要受格關代)

結果:I enjoyed the pizza which Dad bought last night.

亦可:I enjoyed the pizza that Dad bought last night.

重點五:主格與受格的差異

1 主格關代

 

可以用that替代

絕對不可省略

2 受格關代

可以用that

或主格關代替代可以省略,但前有介係詞或逗號時則不可省略亦不可替代!

 

1. I know the man who / that bought the car.

I know the man bought the car.×)主格不可省略

2. I know the man whom / that / ×(省略) you talked about.

I know the man about whom you talked.介係詞可放前

I know the man about that you talked.×有介係詞不可替換

重點六:限定用法與非限定用法

1. 表關係子句有限定及修飾先行詞的作用

2. 關係子句前後不加「,」

3. 可用that 代替who / whom / which

4. 受格關代可省略

5. 因為限定,故指條件相同的不只一位

I need a man who can speak English.

(我需要一位會說英語的人。)

說明:擁有會說英語條件的人不只一位

 

1. 表關係子句僅作補述之用,不用來限定或修飾先行詞

2. 關係子句前後需加「,」

3. 不可用關代that

4. 受格關代不可省略

5. 因為補述,故僅指一個對象

Tony's sister, who lives in Tainan, is coming back.

(湯尼的姊姊要回來了,她目前住在台南。)

說明:湯尼的姊姊只有一位,她住在台南僅作補述之用

 補充:關係子句與分詞片語的替換(主動用現在分詞;被動用過去分詞)

 

例句:I know the man who is standing over there. = I know the man standing over there.

例句:I know the man who was bitten by my dog. = I know the man bitten by my dog.

資料來自康軒文教

 

所有格關代顧名思義就是與兩個句子間的關係是所有格關係,也就是誰的~

例:  My father has a car. The color of the car are red.

這兩句中間的關係就是車子,而前面那句與後面那句的車子有著所有關係

因此便可使用關代所有格 My father has a car whose color are red.

演變過程為 My father has a car the color of which are red.

My father has a car of which the color are red.

My father has a car whose color are red.

例2: Tom likes the girl  whose hair is long and straight. ( Tom 喜歡的女孩的頭髮是又直又長)

I want to buy the book whose cover is a May day. (我想要買那本封面是五月天的書)

所有格關代後緊接一個名詞,後接動詞

 關係子句與介系詞片語、分詞片語替換

 (中文)那位穿著藍色T-shirt的女孩是我朋友。

 (英文)The girl who wears a blue T-shirt is my friend.(關係子句寫法)       

 (英文)The girl in a blue T-shirt is my friend.(介系詞片語寫法)

 (英文)The girl wearing a blue T-shirt is my friend.(分詞片語寫法)

 à因為「穿著」這個動作對先行詞「女孩」來說是主動,故可省略關係代名詞,將動詞改為現在分詞,關係子句轉換為「分詞片語」。

 原句為The girl who is wearing a blue T-shirt is my friend.  那位正穿著藍色T-shirt的女孩是我朋友


 關係先行詞是 one of + 複數名詞 who/which 複數動

準關係代名詞 as but than文法 notes 

複合關係代名詞what 關係副詞 when where 分詞片語ving&p.p. 

 

 free 單字用法 

 

not so much...as... 與其說是……倒不如說是…… 

 

英文教學遊戲 

 

英文筆記1 

 

英文單字闖關遊戲 複合形容詞 (2) 

 

find, keep, leave, catch 文法 

 

家族親戚的英文稱謂怎麼說 

 

帶有使役之意卻使用不定詞(to V原)的動詞 

 

連綴動詞 seem appear keep stay remain 

 

複合形容詞 (2) 

 

英文時間地點哪個先寫 

 

How many How much 數量詞 

 

現在簡單式─第三人稱單數 

 

How to use some & any 

 

take 用法總整理 

 

複合不定代名詞的用法 

 

Here倒裝句文法 

 

come on 的用法 

 

If 連接的句子到底要用現在式還是未來式 

 

Because/so/because of 用法  

 

Mr./Miss/Ms./Mrs.到底怎麼使用 

 

used to VR /be used to V-ing / be used to  

 

關係先行詞是 one of + 複數名詞 who/which 複數動詞 

 

well 的用法 

 

英文祈使句的用法 

 

現在進行式的用法 

 

形容詞的用法 

 

too to /so that /such that/enough to 文法 

 

哪些動詞沒有被動語態 

 

wish不可能實現的願望與hope之差別 

 

have 用法總整理 

 

從屬連接詞 when before after  

 

感官動詞 look at /watch/see/ hear/ listen to/feel/notice/smell 

 

high/highly/hard/hardly/late/lately 差別 

 

不定代名詞 Both of /Two of 差別比較  

 

How to compliment on somebody's clothes? 如何用英文稱讚別人的衣著 

 

Own 的使用方式 of one's own /on one's own 

 

as...as和...一樣 動物比喻 

 

deal 相關片語 deal with/ No big deal 

 

last/latest/last one 用法 

 

Go+Ving 表從事某活動 文法 

 

die death dead 的相關用法與片語 

 

Go to church VS. Go to the church 有the沒the 大不同  

 

國中易搞混與難分辨動詞 

 

主動詞一致之名詞單複數意思不同與特殊複數形單字 

 

work in /work for /work out /work at 

 

someday one day the order day some other day 用法 

 

else用法 

 

英文動詞三態記憶口訣(3) 

 

英文文法 whose 當疑問詞誰的&所有格代名詞 

 

to與of 翻成...的 使用方法 

 

動詞過去式過去分詞記憶口訣(2) 

 

英文動詞三態記憶口訣(一) 

 

英文課堂用語(2) Classroom English 

 

英文字尾er/or/ist 職業相關英文單字 

 

英文課堂用語(1) 

 

英文時間星期縮寫與上下午AM/PM用法 

 

英文單字marry(結婚)的用法 

 

英文天氣相關說法與口訣 

 

過去式 when 當連接詞 

 

Where 疑問副詞用法 

 

連綴動詞 become/turn/ get/ come/fall/go/grow 

 

反身代名詞  

 

過去完成式  

 

國中文法練習題 間接問句 too~to so~that 介係詞片語 

 

so neither too either 用法 附和句 

 

間接問句題目練習 

 

授與動詞(雙賓動詞)記憶口訣 

 

Wh問句與BE動詞問句(1) What time how often how long how far how soon 

 

交通工具搭乘表示文法 

 

12月份英文記憶口訣 

 

未來式 Will & be going to  

 

To VR 不定詞&V-ing 動名詞文法(2018.10.12更新) 

 

詢問如何前往某地文法 How did you get to school yesterday? 

 

過去式動詞變化型 

 

過去式文法句型 

 

過去式BE動詞was were  

 

英文單字聯想記憶術(國中1200字) 

 

雙字片語可分式片語與不可分式片語總整理(2017.3.15更新) 

 

被動語態(感官&使役&授與動詞)

 

關係代名詞子句當主詞使用 

 

過去分詞當形容詞 

 

比較級與最高級(2020.09.23更新) 

 

使役動詞make have let get help 

 

連綴動詞文法 

 

雙賓動詞(授與動詞)文法(2) 

 

間接問句講義&練習題 

 

英文文法被動時態 

 

附加問句文法 

 

情態副詞用法(講義) 

 

spend cost take 花錢花時間的用法(講義) 

 

最高級(教學教材) 

 

比較級教材(教學講義) 

 

數量不定代名詞&代名詞與不定代名詞(講義) 

 

時間介係詞 in at on  

 

頻率副詞 

 

間接問句題目練習 

 

英文被動語態文法 

 

現在完成式 

 

talk speak say tell 說的用法 

 

頻率副詞的用法 always usually often sometimes seldom never 

 

天氣詢問法 What's the weather like? How's the weather? 

 

英文問路與指路用法 

 

英文常見量詞  

 

There is/ There are 有某物在.... 

 

過去進行式 

 

very , much , very much , only 副詞的用法 

 

詢問日期與星期 

 

do 與make 用法的不同  

 

不定代名詞one/another/the other 用法 

 

英文文法附和句 

 

英文年月日寫法 

 

人稱代名詞、名詞單複數、所有格 

 

英文時間表示法(幾點幾分英文) 

 

四季春夏秋冬英文 

 

neither...nor& either..or...&not only...but(also)... 

 

星期英文星期一到星期日  

 

數量詞的用法many much a few a little some any  

 

關係代名詞當主詞、受詞、所有格 講義 

 

後位修飾法 講義 形容詞片語修飾名詞

 

How would you like your steak? 牛排幾分熟? 

 

英文口語詢問別人怎麼了 

 

too~to &so that 文法講義 

 

間接問句(whether&if)Yes or No 疑問句改間接問句 講義 

 

英文簡易常用介係詞 

 

國中文法do 和does的用法 

 

吃湯還是喝湯eat soup or drink soup 

 

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