1. Symbol: Something that suggests or stands for something else without losing its original identity. In literature, symbols combine their literal meaning with the suggestion of an abstract concept.
2. Simile: A comparison, usually using "like" or "as", of two essentially dissimilar things, as in "coffee as cold as ice" or "He sounded like a broken record."
3...metaphor: A figure of speech that expresses an idea through the image of another object. Metaphors suggest the essence of the first object by identifying it with certain qualities of the second object.
- The Chimney Sweeper
The speaker is a native child who plunges into miserable condition. The speaker uses the imagery of blackness and white so as to lead us to figure out the social character. Firstly, the imagery of blackness is the soot which symbolizes the injustice, greed, the violence and evil of the adult world, corruption and social burden. Moreover, in the third stanza, coffins of black is refers to death, chimney and evil of adult world. Secondly, the imagery of white is lambs’ back which is symbol of childhood innocence, purity, native and goodness. In the second stanza, the wool and the child’s hair was shaved which stands for the child will get involved into the evil world and childhood never be back. Moreover, its also symbolizes the ritual of the adult world. In the fourth stanza, angel who had a bright key is a religion faith, Christian. The speaker is leaping, laughing and washing in a river which means rebirth and redemption. In the fifth stanza, the speaker the bag has two meanings which refer to burden of the adult world and the bag of chimney sweep. Finally, the speaker put a dramatic irony in the end. In the speaker’s opinion, if he believes God and he will be redemption. Unfortunately, as he wakes up, there is no change of the world. The world is still dark and the social reality can’t be redemption.