but:含有否定意味,相當於"that .... not",先行的主要子句中常帶有否定語。

句型:no.....butV.....(沒有..........

例句There is no mother but loves her own children.

There is no mother that does not love her own children.

(沒有不愛自己子女的母親。)

(1)but為關係代名詞,當「不」講,與否定字連用,(如no, not, never,little.....,but相當於“that.....not”

(2)but也是「代名詞」,代替“mother”作為“love”的主詞。

As:句型such the same.....asV.....SV(像.....一樣)

This is the same watch as I lost.

(這錶與我遺失的是同一款式。)

☉先行詞如果含有“as, such, the same”時,後面的關係代名詞用as

(1)suchas(像.....這種)

The same.....that(同一個)指只有一人/物

(2)The same.....as(同樣的)指相似二人/物

(3)as的先行詞也可以指前面或後面的一整句:

As we know, he is nice.(誠如我們所知,他人不錯。)

I helped him, as was my duty.(我幫助他是我的責任)

 than:句型比較級.....thanV.....(比..........

例句Don’t give children more money than is needed.

(不要給孩子多於他們所需要的錢。)

(1)先行詞前面如有「比較級」,關係代名詞,只能用“than”

(2)than為關係代名詞,當is的主格,此句決不可在is之前加it

My husband has more money than I am.

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