1. But that 是從屬連接詞,意為「要不是」或「若非」,引出副詞子句。若為現在事實用現在式,後接表相反於現在的主要子句;若為過去事實則用過去式,後接表相反於過去的主要子句。

 

事實(時態)

假設(語氣)

與現在事實相反

現在式

過去式

與過去事實相反

過去式

過去完成式

 

2. 與現在事實相反

But that S V, S+should (would, could, might)+V…

=But for the fact that S V, S+should (would, could, might)+V…

=But for N, S+should (would, could, might)+V…

=Without N, S+should (would, could, might)+V…

=If it were not for N, S+should (would, could, might)+V…

=Were it not for N, S+should (would, could, might)+V…

 If it were not for global warming, we wouldn’t suffer so many disaters.

(若不是地球暖化,我們就不會招受許多災難)

事實是→現在地球暖化,我們招受許多災難

3. 與過去事實相反

But that S V-ed, S+should (would, could, might)+have V-en…

=But for the fact that S V-ed, S+should (would, could, might)+have V-en…

=But for N, S+should (would, could, might)+have V-en…

=Without N, S+should (would, could, might)+have V-en…

=If it had not been for N, S+should (would, could, might)+have V-en…

=Had it not been for N, S+should (would, could, might)+have V-en…

But for your help, I wouldn’t have have been able to finish my work on time.

 

But for your help, I wouldn’t have have been able to finish my work on time.

 (若不是你的幫忙,我無法準時完成我的工作。)

→有你的幫忙,工作已經完成

If you had ridden motorcycle carefully, you wouldn’t have had the car accident.

(要是你小心地騎車,你就不會發生車禍)

事實是→你沒有小心騎車,你已經發生車禍。

 

句中有與現在事實相反及過去事實相反同時出現的句子

 If it had not been for the natural disaster , I could be swimming or fishing in the mountains brooks now. (要不是天災發生,我現在就能在山中小溪裡游泳或釣魚)

事實是→天災已經發生,現在沒有在山中玩。

 →此句為從屬子句與過去事實相反,主要子句主現在事實先反的句子。

 How I wish (that) natrual diaster would never happen again, so that people could live a happy and peaceful life.

 (我多麼希望天災不再發生,以至於人們可以過快樂與平靜的生活)

 →希望的事情與現在事實相反,人們也無法過快樂與平靜的生活,兩句皆為與現在式時先反。

 總結:句子沒有一定要使用過去式+過去完成式,或現在式+過去式的句型,需看說話者所說出的話,與現在或過去先反,而做時態變化。

 只要事件非事實,時態皆要往後退一個時態。

 現在事件→過去式      If I were you→我現在不是你,因此與現在事實相反,使用過去式Be動詞,were 為假設語氣中固定用法,不分人稱。

 過去事件→過去完成式  I would have helped Mary.→我過去沒有幫助Mary,與過去事實相反。

 If I were you, I would have helped Mary.

 

  

與現在事實相反

If only+主詞+過去式 意謂「但願,真希望,要是就好了」。

If only I had another choice.(要是我有其他選擇就好了。)

If only I were rich.(要是我有錢就好了。)

 

與未來事實相反

If only+主詞+would+原形動詞

If only I would take a trip to Japan.(要是我能去日本旅遊就好了。)

 

與過去事實相反   意謂「要是…該有多好,要是…就好了」

If only+主詞+過去完成式

If only I had helpd the elder.(要是我能幫助那位老人就好了。)

 

It is (high/about) time (that) + S + 假設語氣V… (該是做 ~ 事的時候了)

對現在提出虛擬—例:It's time that you had a haircut. (你該理髮了。)

該是同學為即將到來的考試認真讀書的時候了。

It is high time that the students studied hard for the coming exam.

國中文法: 該….是做什麼的時候了

It’s time for N.

=It’s time for sb. to VR.

It’s time for bed.

=It’s time to go to bed.

=It’s time for you to go to bed.

If 假設語氣文法 

 can't but VR /have no choice but to VR 無法選擇,不得不的用法 

 連接詞總整理 

 英文文法時態總整理 

 總之,簡言之To sum up 英文作文結語用法 

  not so much...as... 與其說是……倒不如說是…… 

 No matter what/how/which/who/where/when 

  抽象名詞片語 

  lead to / result in / bring about / cause /give rise to/ contribute to/ conduce to 用法

 other than/besides/except/except for/aside from/apart from文法使用方式

  當介係詞使用的to ,後加v-ing

 與現在/過去事實相反的假設語氣

  unless if not 用法

  顏色相關的英語片語

  英文越來越比較級與雙重比較句the 比較級,the 比較級

  assist/consist/resist/persist/insist/Persevere 用法

  lest/for fear of /for fear that /in case of /in case/ in the case of 文法

  There is no denying that or what how when 名詞子句

  ...也不為過英文句型 can't too

  not to mention/not much of a 使用方法

  nothing but/ anything but/ everything but 用法

  As soon as /Once/ On+ v-ing/ Hardly when ~~文法

  表雖然although /Much as/ Despite /In spite of 句型

  that 同位語

  英文文法分詞構句與獨立分詞構句

  It 作虛主詞的常見句型

  A along with B 使用方式

  as such/ as with/ as for /as of/as to

  英文倍數比較級

  in the wake of ……而至;由於……的結果

  apply to apply for apply 使用法

  A片語

 主詞動詞一致 note

  接動名詞的動詞片語 notes

  prefer to rather than 文法

  rise arise raise arouse 使用方式 notes

  準關係代名詞 as but than文法 notes

   英文worth worthy worthwhile用法 notes

  英文分數表示法英文倍數 notes

 形容詞的順序與位置 notes

 Be known for,as, to 的差別

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