1. But that 是從屬連接詞,意為「要不是」或「若非」,引出副詞子句。若為現在事實用現在式,後接表相反於現在的主要子句;若為過去事實則用過去式,後接表相反於過去的主要子句。

 

事實(時態)

假設(語氣)

與現在事實相反

現在式

過去式

與過去事實相反

過去式

過去完成式

 

2. 與現在事實相反

But that S V, S+should (would, could, might)+V…

=But for the fact that S V, S+should (would, could, might)+V…

=But for N, S+should (would, could, might)+V…

=Without N, S+should (would, could, might)+V…

=If it were not for N, S+should (would, could, might)+V…

=Were it not for N, S+should (would, could, might)+V…

 If it were not for global warming, we wouldn’t suffer so many disaters.

(若不是地球暖化,我們就不會招受許多災難)

事實是→現在地球暖化,我們招受許多災難

3. 與過去事實相反

But that S V-ed, S+should (would, could, might)+have V-en…

=But for the fact that S V-ed, S+should (would, could, might)+have V-en…

=But for N, S+should (would, could, might)+have V-en…

=Without N, S+should (would, could, might)+have V-en…

=If it had not been for N, S+should (would, could, might)+have V-en…

=Had it not been for N, S+should (would, could, might)+have V-en…

But for your help, I wouldn’t have have been able to finish my work on time.

 

But for your help, I wouldn’t have have been able to finish my work on time.

 (若不是你的幫忙,我無法準時完成我的工作。)

→有你的幫忙,工作已經完成

If you had ridden motorcycle carefully, you wouldn’t have had the car accident.

(要是你小心地騎車,你就不會發生車禍)

事實是→你沒有小心騎車,你已經發生車禍。

 

句中有與現在事實相反及過去事實相反同時出現的句子

 If it had not been for the natural disaster , I could be swimming or fishing in the mountains brooks now. (要不是天災發生,我現在就能在山中小溪裡游泳或釣魚)

事實是→天災已經發生,現在沒有在山中玩。

 →此句為從屬子句與過去事實相反,主要子句主現在事實先反的句子。

 How I wish (that) natrual diaster would never happen again, so that people could live a happy and peaceful life.

 (我多麼希望天災不再發生,以至於人們可以過快樂與平靜的生活)

 →希望的事情與現在事實相反,人們也無法過快樂與平靜的生活,兩句皆為與現在式時先反。

 總結:句子沒有一定要使用過去式+過去完成式,或現在式+過去式的句型,需看說話者所說出的話,與現在或過去先反,而做時態變化。

 只要事件非事實,時態皆要往後退一個時態。

 現在事件→過去式      If I were you→我現在不是你,因此與現在事實相反,使用過去式Be動詞,were 為假設語氣中固定用法,不分人稱。

 過去事件→過去完成式  I would have helped Mary.→我過去沒有幫助Mary,與過去事實相反。

 If I were you, I would have helped Mary.

 

  

與現在事實相反

If only+主詞+過去式 意謂「但願,真希望,要是就好了」。

If only I had another choice.(要是我有其他選擇就好了。)

If only I were rich.(要是我有錢就好了。)

 

與未來事實相反

If only+主詞+would+原形動詞

If only I would take a trip to Japan.(要是我能去日本旅遊就好了。)

 

與過去事實相反   意謂「要是…該有多好,要是…就好了」

If only+主詞+過去完成式

If only I had helpd the elder.(要是我能幫助那位老人就好了。)

 

It is (high/about) time (that) + S + 假設語氣V… (該是做 ~ 事的時候了)

對現在提出虛擬—例:It's time that you had a haircut. (你該理髮了。)

該是同學為即將到來的考試認真讀書的時候了。

It is high time that the students studied hard for the coming exam.

國中文法: 該….是做什麼的時候了

It’s time for N.

=It’s time for sb. to VR.

It’s time for bed.

=It’s time to go to bed.

=It’s time for you to go to bed.

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